State of the climate in Cuba 2020. Extended summary.

Cecilia Fonseca Rivera, Dunia Hernández González, Milena Alpízar Tirzo, Idelmis T. González García, Laura Gil Reyes, Virgen Cutié Cancino, Marilee Martínez Alvarez, Sinaí Barcia Sardiñas, Ransés Vázquez Montenegro, Marcelino Hernández González, Beatriz Velázquez Záldivar, Ramón Pérez Suárez, Nathalí Valderá Figueredo

Abstract

This report presents a description of the state of the climate in Cuba during 2020, based on the analysis of climate indices and variables behavior, as well as some factors that regulate the climate variability in Cuba and the region. These indices provide the most relevant information in relation to last year climate variations. The annual mean temperature was the highest since 1951, reaching a value of 1.17°C above the historical average for the period 1961-1990. The mean temperature for the decade 2011-2020 was the highest on record, and 2020 further accentuated the increasing trend of the annual mean temperature in Cuba. Correspondingly, 82 maximum temperature records were broken. Also, the value of 39.7°C registered in April, was set as the national record for absolute maximum temperature in Cuba. Seven extreme heat events were also reported, which place 2020 as the second most frequent in terms of the occurrence of these events. The AENOS event influenced the active hurricane season, although, only two tropical storms affected Cuba directly: Laura and Eta. Rainfall showed a marked annual variability, with low reports on the first months of the year. This behavior led to meteorological and agricultural drought in part of the national territory, which decreased with rain in the rainy season.

Keywords

State of the climate; temperature; rain; climate variability

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