Estado actual de las representación de los principales factores del clima del Caribe por modelos climáticos regionales. Estudios de sensibilidad y validación

Alejandro Vichot Llano, Daniel Martínez Castro

Resumen

Desde el inicio del presente siglo se comenzaron a aplicar los modelos climáticos regionales PRECIS y RegCM para la necesaria reducción de escala de los reanálisis globales basados en observaciones, de limitada resolución espacial y de las salidas de modelos climáticos globales, también limitados en su resolución.  Las líneas de investigación se han centrado en primer lugar en la validación de estos modelos, a partir de su utilización para estudios climáticos en la región del Caribe y la comparación de sus resultados con bases de datos observacionales y paralelamente, en la realización de estudios de sensibilidad de la dependencia del rendimiento de los modelos a cambios en su configuración, incluyendo dominio, resolución y parametrización de procesos físicos. Adicionalmente, los modelos se han utilizado para la reducción de escala de las proyecciones climáticas de modelos globales en estudios de cambio climático. El presente trabajo se centrará en reseñar los principales resultados obtenidos en cuanto a validación de estos modelos y estudios de sensibilidad, enfocando principalmente su capacidad de describir los campos de precipitación y temperatura y conocidos fenómenos climáticos regionales, como la sequía intraestival, el chorro de bajo nivel del Caribe y la ocurrencia de ciclones tropicales. Se concluye que  los resultados obtenidos permiten afirmar que, aunque persisten sesgos en algunas subregiones  e insuficiencias en el desempeño de los modelos, existe una serie de configuraciones que describen razonablemente el clima de la región. Se recomienda el método de ensemble multiparámetro o multimodelo para la obtención de predicciones climáticas en el futuro.

Palabras clave

Modelo climático regional; RegCM4; Estudio de sensibilidad; Región del Caribe

Texto completo:

PDF HTML EPUB

Referencias

Aldrian, E.; Deumenil-Gates, L.; Jacob, D.; Podzun, R.; Gunawan D (2004) “Long-term simulation of Indonesia rainfall with the MPI regional model”. Clim Dyn, 22: 795-814.

Amador, J. A. 1998. “A climatic feature of the Tropical Americas: The Trade Wind Easterly Jet”. Top. Meteor. Oceanogr., 5(2):91-102.

Ángeles, M. E.; González, J. E.; Erickson, III D. J. & Hernández, J. L. 2007. “Predictions of future climate change in the Caribbean region using global general circulation models”. Int. J. Clim. 27, 555-569, doi:10.1002/joc.1416.

Anthes, R. A. 1977. “A cumulus parameterization scheme utilizing a one-dimensional cloud model”. Mon Wea Rev 105: 270–286.

Arakawa, A.; & Schubert, WH. 1974. “Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large scale environment”. Part I. J Atmos Sci 31: 674–701.

Ballester-Pérez M., Pedroso-González C. & Pérez-Suárez R. 2010. Variabilidad de la actividad ciclónica en la región del Atlántico Norte y su pronóstico. Proyecto 0803. Editorial Academia. La Habana, 170 pp.

Campbell, J. D.; Taylor, M. A.; Stephenson, T. S.; Watson, R. A.; & Whyte, F. S. 2010. “Future climate of the Caribbean from a regional climate model”. Int. J. Clim. 31, 1866-1878, doi:10.1002/joc.2200.

Cantet, P.; Déqué, M.; Palany, P.; & Maridet, J. L. 2014. “The importance of using a high-resolution model to study the climate change on small islands: the Lesser Antilles case”. Tellus A 2014, 66, 24065, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v66.24065.

Centella-Artola, A.; Bezanilla, A.; & Leslie, K. 2008. “A study of the uncertainty in future Caribbean climate using the PRECIS regional climate model”. Technical report. Belmopan, Belize: Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC).

Centella-Artola, A.; Taylor, MA.; Bezanilla-Morlot, A.; Martínez-Castro, D.; Campbell, J.; Stephenson, T.; & Vichot-Llano, A. 2015. “Assessing the effect of domain size over the Caribbean region using the PRECIS regional climate model”. Clim. Dyn. 44. 1901-1918. DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2272-8.

Christensen, J. H.; Machenhauer, B.; Jones, R.G.; Schar, C.; Ruti, P. M.; Castro, M.; & Visconti, G. 1997. “Validation of present-day regional climate simulations over Europe: LAM simulations with observed boundary conditions”. Clim. Dyn. 13: 489-506.

Curtis & Gamble. 2007. “Regional variations of the Caribbean mid-summer drought” S. Curtis, D. W. Gamble. . Theor. Appl. Climatol. 94: 25–34.

Dai, Y.; Zeng, X.; Dickinson, R.; Baker, I.; Bonan, G.; Bosilovich, M.; & Denning, A. 2003. “The Common Land Model”. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84: 1013–1023.

Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.; Berrisford, P.; Poli, P.; Kobayashi, S.; Andrae, U.; Balmaseda, M. A.; Balsamo, G.; Bauer, P.; Bechtold, P.; Beljaars, A. C. M.; van de Berg, L.; Bidlot, J.; Bormann, N.; Delsol, C.; Dragani, R.; Fuentes, M.; Geer, A. J.; Haimberger, L.; Healy, S. B.; Hersbach, H.; V. Hólm, E.; Isaksen, L.; Kallberg, P.; Kohler, M.; Matricardi, M.; McNally, A. P.; Monge-Sanz, B. M.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Park, B.-K.; Peubey, C.; de Rosnay, P.; Tavolato, C.; Thépaut, J.-N.; & Vitart, F. 2011. “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system”. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137: 553–597.

Dickinson, RE.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; & Kennedy, P. J. 1993. “Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) version 1E as coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model”.

Diro, GT.; Rauscher, SA.; Giorgi, F.; & Tompkins, AM. 2012. “Sensitivity of seasonal climate and diurnal precipitation over Central America to land and sea surface schemes in RegCM4”. Clim. Res. Vol. 52: 31-48, doi:10.3354/cr01049.

Diro, G.; Giorgi, F.; Fuentes-Franco, R.; Walsh, KJE.; Giuliani, G.; & Coppola, E. 2014. “Tropical cyclones in a regional climate change projection with RegCM4 over the CORDEX Central America domain”. Climatic change 125 (1), 79-94.

Emanuel, K. 1991. “A scheme for representive cumulos convection in large scale models”. J Atmos Sci 48: 2313-2335

Fuentes-Franco, R.; Coppola, E.; Giorgi, F.; Graef, F.; & Pavia, E-G. 2014. “Assessment of RegCM4 simulated inter-annual variability and daily-scale statistics of temperature and precipitation over Mex- ico. Clim Dyn 42:629–647.

Fuentes‑Franco, R.; Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.; & Zimmermann, K. 2016. “Sensitivity of tropical cyclones to resolution, convection scheme and ocean flux parameterization over Eastern Tropical Pacific and Tropical North Atlantic Oceans in the RegCM4 model”.

Gamble, D. W.; & Curtis, S. 2008. “Caribbean precipitation: review, model and prospect”. Prog. Phys. Geo. 32, doi:10.1177/0309133308096027.

Gao, XJ.; Shi, Y.; & Giorgi, F. 2016. “Comparison of convective parameterizations in RegCM4 experiments over China with CLM as the land surface mode”. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 9,4:246–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16742834.2016.1172938.

Giorgi, F., Marinucci, M.; & Bates, G. 1993a. “Development of a Second-Generation Regional Climate Model (RegCM2). Part I: Boundary-Layer and Radiative Transfer Processes.” Monthly Weather Review 121: 2794–2813.

Giorgi, F., Marinucci, M.; Bates, G. & De Canio. G. 1993b. “Development of a Second-Generation Regional Climate Model (RegCM2). Part II: Convective Processes and Assimilation of Lateral Boundary Conditions.” Monthly Weather Review 121: 2814–2832.

Giorgi, F.; Mearns, LO. 1991. “Approaches to regional climate change simulation: a review”. Rev Geophys 29: 191-221. Jour Geoph. Res.

Giorgi, F.; & Mearns, L. O. 1999. “Introduction to special section. Regional climate modeling revisited”. Jour. Geoph, Res,,104, D6, 6335-6352, March 27, 1999. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104.

Giorgi, F.; Jones, C.; & Asrar, G. 2009. “Addressing climate information needs at the regional level: the CORDEX framework”. WMO Bulletin 58: 175−183.

Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.; Solmon, F.; Mariotti, L.; Sylla, M.; Bi, X.; & Elguindi, N. 2012. “RegCM4: Model Description and Preliminary Tests over Multiple CORDEX Domains.” Climate Research 52: 7–29.

Gordon, C.; Cooper, C. A.; Senior, H. T.; Banks, J. M.; Gregory, T. C.; Johns, J. F. B.; Mitchell, & Wood, R.A. 2000. “The simulation of SST, sea ice extents nd ocean het transports in a version of the Hadley Centre coupled model without flux adjustments”. Clim. Dyn., 16, 147-168.

Gouirand, I.; Jury, M. R.; & Sing, B. 2012. “An analysis of low- and high-frequency summer climate variability around the Caribbean Antilles”. J. Clim. 25, 3942-3952.

Harris, I.; Jones, PD.; Osborn, TJ.; & Lister, DH. 2014. “Update high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations - the CRU TS3.10 Dataset”. Int. J. Climatology, 34:623-642, Doi:10.1002/joc.3711.

Hidalgo, H. G.; Durán‐Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; & Alfaro, E. J. 2015. “The Caribbean Low‐Level Jet, the Inter‐Tropical Convergence Zone and Precipitation Patterns in the Intra‐Americas Sea: A Proposed Dynamical Mechanism. Geografiska Annaler”. Series A, Physical Geography, 97, 41–59.

Hobgood, J. 2005. “Tropical cyclones”. In: Encyclopedia of World Climatology (J. E. Oliver, ed.). Springer.

Huffman, G. J.; Adler, R. F.; Bolvin, D. T.; Gu, G.; Nelkin, E. J.; Bowman, K. P.; Hong, Y.; Stocker, E. F.; & Wolff, D. B. 2007. “The TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis (TMPA): Quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales”. J. Hydrometeorol. 8, 38-55.

Huntingford, C.; Jones, R. G.; Prudhomme, C.; Lamb, R.; Gash, J. H. C.; & Jones, D. A. 2003. “Regional climate-model predictions of extreme rainfall for a changing climate”. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 129, pp. 1607–1621 doi: 10.1256/qj.02.97.

Solomon, S.; Qin, D.; Manning, M.; Chen, Z.; Marquis, M.; Averyt, K. B.; Tignor, M.; & Miller, H. L. (eds.) IPCC, 2007. “Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change”. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

Stocker, T. F.; Qin, D.; Plattner, G. K.; Tignor, M.; Allen, S. K.; Boschung, J.; Nauels, A.; Xia, Y.; Bex, V.; & Midgley, P. M. (eds.) IPCC, 2013. “Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change”. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.

Jones, R.; Murphy, J.; Hassell, D.; & Taylor, R. 2001. “Ensemble Mean Changes in a Simulation of the European Climate of 2071–2100 Using the New Hadley Centre Regional Modelling System HadAM3H/HadRM3H”. Hadley Centre, Met Office: Bracknell.

Jones, R. G.; Noguer, M.; Hassell, D.; Hudson, D.; Wilson, S.; Jenkins, G.; & Mitchell, J. 2004. “Generating high resolution climate change scenarios using PRECIS (manual)”. Exeter, UK: Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research Met Office, 40 pp.

Jones, C.; Giorgi, F.; & Asrar, G. 2011. “The coordinated regional downscal- ing experiment: CORDEX. An international downscaling link to CMIP5”. CLIVAR Exch 56:34–40.

Jury, M. R.; Malmgren, B. A.; & Winter, A. 2007. “Sub-regional precipitation climate of the Caribbean and relationships with ENSO and NAO”. J. Geophys. Res. 112, D16107, doi:10.1029/2006JD007541.

Jury, M. R. 2009. “An inter-comparison of observational, reanalysis, satellite, and coupled model data on mean rainfall in the Caribbean”. J. Hydrometeorol. 10, 413-430.

Kalnay, E. 1996. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project”. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437–471.

Karmalkar, A. V.; Taylor, M. A.; Campbell, J.; Stephenson, T.; New, M.; Centella, A.; Bezanilla, A.; & Charlery, J. 2013. “A review of observed and projected changes in climate for the islands in the Caribbean”. Atmósfera 26(2), 283-309.

Karnauskas, K. B.; & Busalacchi, A. J. 2009. “The Role of SST in the East Pacific Warm Pool in the Interannual Variability of Central American Rainfall”. Jour Clim., 22. 2605-2623.

Karnauskas, K. B.; Seager, R.; & Giannini, A. 2013. “A simple mechanism for the climatological midsummer drought along the Pacific coast of Central America”. Atmósfera 26(2), 261-281.

Knutson, T.R.; Sirutis, J. J.; Garner, S. TR.; Held, I. M.; & Tuleya, R. E. 2007. “Simulation of the recent multi-decadal increase of Atlantic hurricane activity using an 18-km grid regional model”. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 88, 10: 1549-1565.

Magaña, V.; Amador, J. A.; & Medina, S. 1999. “The midsummer drought over Mexico and Central America”. J. Clim. 12, 1577-1588.

Martin, E. R.; & Schumacher, C. 2011. “The Caribbean low-level jet and its relationship to precipitation in IPCC AR4 models”. J. Clim. 24, 5935-5950.

Martinez-Castro, D.; da Rocha, R. P.; Benzanilla-Morlot, A.; Álvarez-Escudero, L.; Reyes-Fernández, J. P.; Silva-Vidal, Y.; & Arritt, R. W. 2006. “Sensitivity studies of the RegCM3 simulation of summer precipitation, temperature and local wind field in the Caribbean region”. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 86, 5-22, doi:10.1007/s00704-005-0201-9.

Martínez-Castro, D.; Borrajero, I.; Bezanilla-Morlot, A.; & Centella, A. 2011. “The occurrence of tropical cyclones in the Caribbean and Mexico and global warming. Application of a regional climate model”. (In Spanish Abstract in English) Rev. Ciencias de la Tierra y el Espacio”, 12, 2011. http://www.iga.cu/publicaciones/revista/cte_12/CTE12.html.

Martínez-Castro, D.; Vichot-Llano, A.; Bezanilla-Morlot, A.; Centella-Artola, A.; Campbell, J.; & Viloria-Holguin, C. 2016. “Performance of RegCM-4.3 over the Caribbean region using different configurations of the Tiedtke convective parameterization scheme”. Rev Climat. Vol. 16 (2016): 77-98. http://webs.ono.com/reclim11/reclim16f.pdf.

Meehl, G. A.; Covey, C.; Delworth, T.; Latif, M.; McAvaney, B.; Mitchell, J. F. B.; Stouffer, R. J.; & Taylor, K. E. 2007. “The WCRP CMIP3 multi-model dataset: A new era in climate change research”. Bull. American. Met. Soc. 88, 1383-1394.

Muñoz, E.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Nigam, S.; & Ruiz-Barradas, A. 2008. “Winter and summer structure of the Caribbean low-level jet”. J. Clim. 21, 1260-1276.

Naranjo-Díaz L. R.; & Centella, A. 1998. Recent trends in the climate of Cuba. Weather 53, 80-85, doi:10.1002/j.1477-8696.1998.tb03964.x.

New, M.; Hulme, M.; & Jones, P. 2000. “Representing twentieth century space-time climate variability: Part II: Development of 1901-1996 monthly grids of terrestrial surface climate”. J. Climate, 13:2217-2238.

New, M.; Lister, D.; Hulme, M.; & Makin, I. 2002. “A high-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas”. CR 21:1-25 (2002) - doi:10.3354/cr021001

Nguyen, K. C.; & Walsh, K. J. E. 2001. “Interannual, decadal and transient greenhouse simulation of tropical cyclone-like vortices in a regional climate model of the South Pacific”. J. Climate, 14, 3043-3054.

Nordeng, T. E. 1994. “Extended versions of the convective parameterization scheme at ECMWF and their impact on the mean and transient activity of the model in the Tropics”. ECMWF. Tech.Memo. 206, 41pp.

Notaro, M.; & Zarrin, A. 2011. “Sensitivity of the . North American monsoon to antecedent Rocky Mountain snowpack”. Geoph. Res. Let., vol. 38, l17403, doi:10.1029/2011GL048803, 2011.

Oleson, K.; David, W.; Lawrence, D. W. M.; Bonan; G. B.; Flanner, M. G.; Kluzek E.; Levis, P. J.; Swenson, S. C.; & Thornton, P. E. 2010. “Technical Description of version 4.0 of the Community Land Model (CLM) Climate and Global Dynamics Division” NCAR/TN-478+STR

Pal, J. S.; Giorgi, F.; Bi, X.; Elguindi, N.; Solmon, F.; Gao, X.; Rauscher, S. A.; Francisco, R.; Zakey, A.; Winter, J.; Ashfaq, M.; Syed, F. S.; Bell, J. L.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Karmacharya, K.; Konare, A.; Martinez-Castro, D.; Da Rocha, R. P.; Sloan, L. C.; & Steiner, A. L. 2007. “Regional climate modeling for the developing world: The ICTP RegCM3 and RegCNET”. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 88, 1395-1409, DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-88-9-1395.

Pauluis, O.; & Garner, S. T. 2006. “Sensitivity of radiative-convective equilibrium simulations to horizontal resolution”. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1910-1923.

Peterson, T. C.; Taylor, M. A.; Demeritte, R.; Duncombe, D. L.; Burton, S.; Thompson, F.; Porter, A.; Mejia, M.; Villegas, E.; Semexant, F. R.; Klein, T. A.; Martis, A.; Warner, R.; Joyette, A.; Mills, W.; Al Alexander, L.; & Gleason, B. 2002. “Recent changes in climate extremes in the Caribbean region”. J. Geophys. Res, 107, 4601, doi:10.1029/2002JD002251.

Pope, V. D.; Gallani, M. L.; Rowntree, P. R.; & Stratton, R. A. 2000. “The impact of new physical parameterizations in the Hadley Centre climate model HadAM3”. Climate Dynamics, 16, 123-146. doi:10.1007/s003820050009.

Rauscher, S.; Giorgi, F.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; & Seth, A. 2008. “Extension and intensification of the Meso-American mid-summer drought in the twenty-first century”. Clim. Dyn. 31, 551-571, doi:10.1007/s00382-007-0359-1.

Rienecker, M. M.; Suarez, M. J.; Gelaro, R.; Todling, R.; Bacmeister, J.; Liu, E.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Schubert, S. D.; Takacs, L.; Kim, G. K.; & others 2011. “MERRA-NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications”. J. Climate, 24:3624-3648.

Reboita, M. S.; Fernandez, J. P. R.; Pereira, M.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.; Albertani, P. L. & Cruz, F. T. 2014. “Assessment of RegCM4.3 over the CORDEX South America domain: sensitivity analysis for physical parameterization schemes”. Clim Res 60:215-234. https://doi.org/10.3354/cr01239

Roeckner, E.; Arpe, K.; Bengtsson, L.; Christoph, M.; Claussen, M.; Dümenil, L.; Esch, M.; Giorgetta, M.; Schlese, U.; & Schulzweida, U. 1996. “The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM-4: model description and simulation of present-day climate Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology”. Report No.218, Hamburg, Germany, 90pp.

Rudolf, B.; & Schneider, U. 2005. “Calculation of Gridded Precipitation Data for the Global Land-Surface using in-situ Gauge Observations, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop of the International Precipitation Working Group IPWG”. Monterey October 2004, EUMETSAT, ISBN 92-9110-070-6, ISSN 1727-432X, 231-247.

Seth, A.; & Giorgi, F.; 1998. “The effects of domain choice on summer precipitation simulation and sensitivity in a regional climate model”. Jour. Clim., 11, 2698-2712.

Sylla, M. B.; Giorgi, F.; Ruti, P. M.; Calmanti, S.; & Dell’Aquila, A.; 2011. “The impact of deep convection on the West African summer monsoon climate: a regional climate model sensitivity study”. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137: 1417–1430.

Small, R. J. O.; de Szoeke, S. P.; & Xie, S. P. 2007. “The Central American midsummer drought: Regional aspects and large-scale forcing”. J. Clim. 20, 4853-4873.

Tiedtke, M.; 1989. “A Comprehensive Mass Flux Scheme for Cumulus Parameterization in large-scale models. American Meteorological Society”. 117: pp. 1779-1800.

Taylor, M. A.; & Alfaro, E. J. 2005. “Climate of Central America and the Caribbean”. In: Encyclopedia of World Climatology (J. E. Oliver, ed.). Springer.

Taylor, M. A.; Centella, A.; Charlery, J.; Bezanilla, A.; Campbell, J. D.; Borrajero, I.; Stephenson, T. S.; & Nurmohamed, R. 2013. “The PRECIS Caribbean story: lessons and legacies”. Bull Am Meteorol Soc. 94:1065–1073.

Vichot-Llano, A.; Martínez-Castro, D.; Centella-Artola, A.; & Bezanilla-Morlot, A. 2014. “Sensibilidad al cambio de dominio y resolución de tres configuraciones del modelo climático regional RegCM 4.3 para la región de América Central y el Caribe”. Rev. Climatología, 14:45-62.

Wang, C.; 2007. “Variability of the Caribbean Low-Level Jet and its relations to climate”. Clim Dyn (2007) 29:411–422 DOI 10.1007/s00382-007-0243-z.

Wang, C.; & Lee, S. 2007. “Atlantic warm pool, Caribbean low-level jet, and their potential impact on Atlantic hurricanes”. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L02703, doi:10.1029/2006GL028579.

Whyte, F. S.; Taylor, M. A.; Stephenson, T. S.; & Campbell, J. D. 2008. “Features of the Caribbean low-level jet”. Int. J. Clim. 28, 119-128.

Walsh, K. J.; & Katzfey, J. J. 2000. “The impact of climate change on the poleward movement of cyclone-like vortices in a regional climate model”. J. Climate, 13, 1116-1132.

Walsh, K. J.; Nguyen, K. C.; & McGregor, J. L. 2004. “Fine resolution regional climate model simulations of the impact of climate change on tropical cyclones near Australia”. Climate Dyn., 22, 47-56.

Walsh, K. J. E.; Fiorino, M.; Landsea, C. W.; & McInnes, K. L. 2007. “Objectively determined resolution-dependent threshold criteria for the detection of tropical cyclones in climate models and reanalysis”. J. Climate, 20, 2307-2314.

Xie, P.; & Arkin, P. A. 1997. “Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates and numerical model output”. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 78, 2539-2558.

Zeng, X.; Zhao, M.; & Dickinson, R. E. 1998. “Intercomparison of bulk aerodynamic algorithms for the computation of sea surface fluxes using TOGA COARE and TAO DATA”. J Climate 11: 2628–2644.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.